Course

19R1 D. Anselmi
Theories of gravitation

Program

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Recent Papers

Recent papers and theorems

19R8 Damiano Anselmi
Quantum gravity from fakeons – Gravity and other fields under the volcano

Talk given at the conference "Gravity and other fields under the volcano", Catania, Italy, June 10th, 2019 A new quantization prescription is able to endow quantum field theory with a new type of “particle”, the fakeon (fake particle), which mediates interactions, but cannot be observed. A massive fakeon of spin 2 ... [more]

19R7 Damiano Anselmi
Quantum gravity from fakeons – Bologna

Seminar given at the Department of Physics and Astronomy of the University of Bologna on May 30th, 2019 A new quantization prescription is able to endow quantum field theory with a new type of "particle", the fakeon (fake particle), which mediates interactions, but cannot be observed. A massive ... [more]

19R6 Marco Piva
On the behavior of gravitational force at small scales

We point out the idea that, at small scales, gravity can be described by the standard degrees of freedom of general relativity, plus a scalar particle and a degree of freedom of a new type: the fakeon. This possibility leads to fundamental implications in understanding gravitational force at quantum level ... [more]

19R5 Damiano Anselmi
Fakeons and Quantum Gravity – Cargese

Talk given at the conference Hot topics in modern cosmology. Spontaneous Workshop XIII, 5 - 11 May 2019 — IESC, Cargèse A new quantization prescription is able to endow quantum field theory with a new type of “particle”, the fakeon (fake particle), which mediates interactions, but cannot be observed. A massive ... [more]

19R4 Damiano Anselmi
Fakeons and quantum gravity – Vietri sul Mare

Talk given at the conference PAFT 2019 - Current problems in theoretical physics. Aspects of nonperturbative QFT, foundations of quantum theory, quantum spacetime. XXV edition, Vietri sul Mare (Salerno, Italy), April 13-17, 2019 A new quantization prescription is able to endow quantum field theory with a new type of "particle", the ... [more]

19R2 Damiano Anselmi
Fakeons, quantum gravity and the classical limit

Talk given at the Conference "Scale invariance in particle physics and cosmology", CERN, on January 29th, 2019 A new quantization prescription is able to endow quantum field theory with a new type of "particle", the fakeon (fake particle), which mediates interactions, but cannot be observed. A massive fakeon of spin 2 ... [more]

19A1 Damiano Anselmi
Fakeons and the classicization of quantum gravity: the FLRW metric

Under certain assumptions, it is possible to make sense of higher derivative theories by quantizing the unwanted degrees of freedom as fakeons, which are later projected away. Then the true classical limit is obtained by classicizing the quantum theory. Since quantum field theory is formulated perturbatively, the classicization is also ... [more]

19R1 Damiano Anselmi
Theories of gravitation

Program Differential geometry topological spaces, manifolds, differential manifolds, derivations, vector fields, differential forms, tangent space, cotangent space, tangent bundle, cotangent bundle, Lie derivative, metric, covariant derivative, torsion, curvature, metric compatibility, tetrad, spin connection, Christoffel symbols, Riemann tensor, Ricci tensor, Ricci scalar, Bianchi identities. General relativity Hilbert action, Palatini formulation, field equations. Coupling of gravity to ... [more]

18R2 Damiano Anselmi
From fakeons to quantum gravity

Talk given at the Department of Physics and Astronomy of Southampton University, UK, on Nov 16th, 2018 I introduce the concept of fake particle and study how it is used to formulate a consistent theory of quantum gravity. Fakeons arise from a new quantization prescription, alternative to the Feynman one, for ... [more]

18A7 Damiano Anselmi
On the nature of the Higgs boson

Several particles are not observed directly, but only through their decay products. We consider the possibility that they might be fakeons, i.e. fake particles, which mediate interactions but are not asymptotic states. A crucial role to determine the true nature of a particle is played by the imaginary parts of ... [more]

18A6 Damiano Anselmi
Let the dice play God

We define life as the amplification of quantum uncertainty up to macroscopic scales. A living being is any amplifier that achieves this goal. We argue that everything we know about life can be explained from this idea. We study a ladder mechanism to estimate the probability that the amplification occurs ... [more]

18R1 Damiano Anselmi
The correspondence principle in quantum field theory and quantum gravity

Talk given at the conference Progress and Visions in Quantum Theory in View of Gravity: Bridging foundations of physics and mathematics Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences, Leipzig October 04, 2018 I claim that the best correspondence principle for quantum field theory and quantum gravity is made of unitarity, locality and proper ... [more]

18A5 Damiano Anselmi
The correspondence principle in quantum field theory and quantum gravity

We discuss the fate of the correspondence principle beyond quantum mechanics, specifically in quantum field theory and quantum gravity, in connection with the intrinsic limitations of the human ability to observe the external world. We conclude that the best correspondence principle is made of unitarity, locality, proper renormalizability (a refinement ... [more]

18A4 Damiano Anselmi
Fakeons, microcausality and the classical limit of quantum gravity

We elaborate on the idea of fake particle and study its physical consequences. When a theory contains fakeons, the true classical limit is determined by the quantization and a subsequent process of "classicization". One of the major predictions due to the fake particles is the violation of microcausality, which survives ... [more]

18A3 Damiano Anselmi and Marco Piva
Quantum gravity, fakeons and microcausality

We investigate the properties of fakeons in quantum gravity at one loop. The theory is described by a graviton multiplet, which contains the fluctuation $h_{\mu \nu }$ of the metric, a massive scalar $\phi $ and the spin-2 fakeon $\chi _{\mu \nu }$. The fields $\phi $ and $\chi _{\mu ... [more]

Several particles are not observed directly, but only through their decay products. We consider the possibility that they might be fakeons, i.e. fake particles, which mediate interactions but are not asymptotic states. A crucial role to determine the true nature of a particle is played by the imaginary parts of the one-loop radiative corrections, which are affected in nontrivial ways by the presence of fakeons in the loop. The knowledge we have today is sufficient to prove that most non directly observed particles are true physical particles. However, in the case of the Higgs boson the possibility that it might be a fakeon remains open. The issue can be resolved by means of precision measurements in existing and future accelerators.

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Mod. Phys. Lett. A 34 (2019) 1950123 | DOI: 10.1142/S0217732319501232

arXiv: 1811.02600 [hep-ph]

OSF preprints | DOI: 10.31219/osf.io/d4qmv

hal-01911950

We define life as the amplification of quantum uncertainty up to macroscopic scales. A living being is any amplifier that achieves this goal. We argue that everything we know about life can be explained from this idea. We study a ladder mechanism to estimate the probability that the amplification occurs spontaneously in nature. The amplification mechanism is so sensitive to small variations of its own parameters that it acts as a bifurcation itself, i.e. it implies that the universe is either everywhere dead or alive wherever possible. Since the first option is excluded by the existence of life on earth, we infer that the universe hosts a huge number of inhabited planets (possibly one per star on average). We also investigate models of conscious and unconscious learning processes, as well as the structure of the brain and evolution. Finally, we address the problem of creating artificial life.

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OSF preprints | DOI: 10.31219/osf.io/ph7xz

hal-01911993

Talk given at the conference

Progress and Visions in Quantum Theory in View of Gravity: Bridging foundations of physics and mathematics

Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences, Leipzig

October 04, 2018

I claim that the best correspondence principle for quantum field theory and quantum gravity is made of unitarity, locality and proper renormalizability (which is a refinement of strict renormalizability), combined with fundamental local symmetries and the requirement of having a finite number of fields. Quantum gravity is identified in an essentially unique way. It emerges from a new quantization prescription, which introduces the notion of fake particle, or “fakeon”, and uses it to resolve the long-standing problem of the higher-derivative ghosts. I discuss the major physical prediction of the theory, which is the violation of causality at small distances. The correspondence principle identifies the gauge interactions uniquely in form, but does not predict the gauge group. On the other hand, the matter sector remains almost completely unrestricted.

PDF

We discuss the fate of the correspondence principle beyond quantum mechanics, specifically in quantum field theory and quantum gravity, in connection with the intrinsic limitations of the human ability to observe the external world. We conclude that the best correspondence principle is made of unitarity, locality, proper renormalizability (a refinement of strict renormalizability), combined with fundamental local symmetries and the requirement of having a finite number of fields. Quantum gravity is identified in an essentially unique way. The gauge interactions are uniquely identified in form. Instead, the matter sector remains basically unrestricted. The major prediction is the violation of causality at small distances.

PDF

OSF preprints | DOI: 10.31219/osf.io/d2nj7

PhilSci 15287 (v1: PhilSci 15048)

Preprints 2018, 2018110213

hal-01900207

We elaborate on the idea of fake particle and study its physical consequences. When a theory contains fakeons, the true classical limit is determined by the quantization and a subsequent process of “classicization”. One of the major predictions due to the fake particles is the violation of microcausality, which survives the classical limit. This fact gives hope to detect the violation experimentally. A fakeon of spin 2, together with a scalar field, is able to make quantum gravity renormalizable while preserving unitarity. We claim that the theory of quantum gravity emerging from this construction is the right one. By means of the classicization, we work out the corrections to the field equations of general relativity. We show that the finalized equations have, in simple terms, the form $\langle F\rangle =ma$, where $\langle F\rangle $ is an average that includes a little bit of “future”.

PDF

Class. and Quantum Grav. 36 (2019) 065010 | DOI: 10.1088/1361-6382/ab04c8

arXiv: 1809.05037 [hep-th]

We investigate the properties of fakeons in quantum gravity at one loop. The theory is described by a graviton multiplet, which contains the fluctuation $h_{\mu \nu }$ of the metric, a massive scalar $\phi $ and the spin-2 fakeon $\chi _{\mu \nu }$. The fields $\phi $ and $\chi _{\mu \nu }$ are introduced explicitly at the level of the Lagrangian by means of standard procedures. We consider two options, where $\phi $ is quantized as a physical particle or a fakeon, and compute the absorptive part of the self-energy of the graviton multiplet. The width of $\chi _{\mu \nu }$, which is negative, shows that the theory predicts the violation of causality at energies larger than the fakeon mass. We address this issue and compare the results with those of the Stelle theory, where $\chi _{\mu \nu }$ is a ghost instead of a fakeon.

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J. High Energy Phys. 11 (2018) 21 | DOI: 10.1007/JHEP11(2018)021

arXiv: 1806.03605 [hep-th]

A theory of quantum gravity has been recently proposed by means of a novel quantization prescription, which is able to turn the poles of the free propagators that are due to the higher derivatives into fakeons. The classical Lagrangian contains the cosmological term, the Hilbert term, $
\sqrt{-g}R_{\mu \nu }R^{\mu \nu }$ and $\sqrt{-g}R^{2}$. In this paper, we compute the one-loop renormalization of the theory and the absorptive part of the graviton self energy. The results illustrate the mechanism that makes renormalizability compatible with unitarity. The fakeons disentangle the real part of the self energy from the imaginary part. The former obeys a renormalizable power counting, while the latter obeys the nonrenormalizable power counting of the low energy expansion and is consistent with unitarity in the limit of vanishing cosmological constant. The value of the absorptive part is related to the central charge $c$ of the matter fields coupled to gravity.

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J. High Energ. Phys. 05 (2018) 27 | DOI: 10.1007/JHEP05(2018)027

arXiv: 1803.07777 [hep-th]

→ Mathematica files attached to paper

The “fakeon” is a fake degree of freedom, i.e. a degree of freedom that does not belong to the physical spectrum, but propagates inside the Feynman diagrams. Fakeons can be used to make higher-derivative theories unitary. Moreover, they help us clarify how the Lee-Wick models work. In this paper we study the fakeon models, that is to say the theories that contain fake and physical degrees of freedom. We formulate them by (nonanalytically) Wick rotating their Euclidean versions. We investigate the properties of arbitrary Feynman diagrams and, among other things, prove that the fakeon models are perturbatively unitary to all orders. If standard power counting constraints are fulfilled, the models are also renormalizable. The S matrix is regionwise analytic. The amplitudes can be continued from the Euclidean region to the other regions by means of an unambiguous, but nonanalytic, operation, called average continuation. We compute the average continuation of typical amplitudes in four, three and two dimensions and show that its predictions agree with those of the nonanalytic Wick rotation. By reconciling renormalizability and unitarity in higher-derivative theories, the fakeon models are good candidates to explain quantum gravity.

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J. High Energy Phys. 02 (2018) 141 | DOI: 10.1007/JHEP02(2018)141

arXiv: 1801.00915 [hep-th]

hal-01900285

We study the main options for a unitary and renormalizable, local quantum field theory of the gravitational interactions. The first model is a Lee-Wick superrenormalizable higher-derivative gravity, formulated as a nonanalytically Wick rotated Euclidean theory. We show that, under certain conditions, the $S$ matrix is unitary when the cosmological constant vanishes. The model is the simplest of its class. However, infinitely many similar options are allowed, which raises the issue of uniqueness. To deal with this problem, we propose a new quantization prescription, by doubling the unphysical poles of the higher-derivative propagators and turning them into Lee-Wick poles. The Lagrangian of the simplest theory of quantum gravity based on this idea is the linear combination of $R$, $R_{\mu \nu}R^{\mu \nu }$, $R^{2}$ and the cosmological term. Only the graviton propagates in the cutting equations and, when the cosmological constant vanishes, the $S$ matrix is unitary. The theory satisfies the locality of counterterms and is renormalizable by power counting. It is unique in the sense that it is the only one with a dimensionless gauge coupling.

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J. High Energy Phys. 06 (2017) 086 | DOI: 10.1007/JHEP06(2017)086

arXiv: 1704.07728 [hep-th]

OSF preprints | DOI: 10.31219/osf.io/rbt2c

hal-01900209

→ Mathematica files attached to paper

We study the perturbative unitarity of the Lee-Wick models, formulated as nonanalytically Wick rotated Euclidean theories. The complex energy plane is divided into disconnected regions and the values of a loop integral in the various regions are related to one another by a nonanalytic procedure. We show that the one-loop diagrams satisfy the expected, unitary cutting equations in each region: only the physical degrees of freedom propagate through the cuts. The goal can be achieved by working in suitable subsets of each region and proving that the cutting equations can be analytically continued as a whole. We make explicit calculations in the cases of the bubble and triangle diagrams and address the generality of our approach. We also show that the same higher-derivative models violate unitarity if they are formulated directly in Minkowski spacetime.

PDF

Phys. Rev. D 96 (2017) 045009 | DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.96.045009

arXiv: 1703.05563 [hep-th]

Book

14B1 D. Anselmi
Renormalization

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Last update: May 9th 2015, 230 pages

Contents:
Preface
1. Functional integral
2. Renormalization
3. Renormalization group
4. Gauge symmetry
5. Canonical formalism
6. Quantum electrodynamics
7. Non-Abelian gauge field theories
Notation and useful formulas
References

Course on renormalization, taught in Pisa in 2015. (More chapters will be added later.)

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