Course
19S1 D. Anselmi
Theories of gravitation
Program
Recent Papers

22A2 Damiano Anselmi
Fakeons versus LeeWick ghosts: physical PauliVillars fields, finite QED and quantum gravityWe reconsider the LeeWick (LW) models and compare their properties to the properties of the models that contain purely virtual particles. We argue against the ... (read more)

22A1 Damiano Anselmi
Dressed propagators, fakeon selfenergy and peak uncertaintyWe study the resummation of selfenergy diagrams into dressed propagators in the case of purely virtual particles and compare the results with those obtained for ... (read more)

21A5 Damiano Anselmi
Diagrammar of physical and fake particles and spectral optical theoremWe prove spectral optical identities in quantum field theories of physical particles (defined by the Feynman $i\epsilon $ prescription) and purely virtual particles (defined by ... (read more)

21A4 Damiano Anselmi, Kristjan Kannike, Carlo Marzo, Luca Marzola, Aurora Melis, Kristjan Müürsepp, Marco Piva and Martti Raidal
A fake doublet solution to the muon anomalous magnetic momentExtensions to the Standard Model that use strictly offshell degrees of freedom – the fakeons – allow for new measurable interactions at energy scales usually ... (read more)

21A3 Damiano Anselmi, Kristjan Kannike, Carlo Marzo, Luca Marzola, Aurora Melis, Kristjan Müürsepp, Marco Piva, Martti Raidal
Phenomenology of a Fake Inert Doublet ModelWe introduce a new way of modeling the physics beyond the Standard Model by considering fake, strictly offshell degrees of freedom: the fakeons. To demonstrate ... (read more)

21A2 Damiano Anselmi
Perturbation spectra and renormalizationgroup techniques in doublefield inflation and quantum gravity cosmologyWe study primordial cosmology with two scalar fields that participate in inflation at the same time, by coupling quantum gravity (i.e., the theory $R+R^2+C^2$ with ... (read more)

21A1 Damiano Anselmi, Filippo Fruzza and Marco Piva
Renormalizationgroup techniques for singlefield inflation in primordial cosmology and quantum gravityWe study inflation as a “cosmic” renormalizationgroup flow. The flow, which encodes the dependence on the background metric, is described by a running coupling $\alpha ... (read more)

20A5 Damiano Anselmi
Highorder corrections to inflationary perturbation spectra in quantum gravityWe compute the inflationary perturbation spectra and the quantity $r+8n_{T}$ to the nexttonexttoleading log order in quantum gravity with purely virtual particles (which means the ... (read more)

20A4 Damiano Anselmi
Cosmic inflation as a renormalizationgroup flow: the running of power spectra in quantum gravityWe study the running of power spectra in inflationary cosmology as a renormalizationgroup flow from the de Sitter fixed point. The beta function is provided ... (read more)

20A3 Damiano Anselmi
Quantum field theories of arbitraryspin massive multiplets and Palatini quantum gravityWe formulate quantum field theories of massive fields of arbitrary spins. The presence of both physical and fake particles, organized into multiplets, makes it possible ... (read more)

20A2 Damiano Anselmi, Eugenio Bianchi and Marco Piva
Predictions of quantum gravity in inflationary cosmology: effects of the Weylsquared termWe derive the predictions of quantum gravity with fakeons on the amplitudes and spectral indices of the scalar and tensor fluctuations in inflationary cosmology. The ... (read more)

20A1 Damiano Anselmi
The quest for purely virtual quanta: fakeons versus FeynmanWheeler particlesThe search for purely virtual quanta has attracted interest in the past. We consider various proposals and compare them to the concept of fake particle, ... (read more)

19A3 Damiano Anselmi and Antonio Marino
Fakeons and microcausality: light cones, gravitational waves and the Hubble constantThe concept of fake particle, or “fakeon”, allows us to make sense of quantum gravity as an ultraviolet complete theory, by renouncing causality at very ... (read more)

19A2 Damiano Anselmi
Fakeons, unitarity, massive gravitons and the cosmological constantWe give a simple proof of perturbative unitarity in gauge theories and quantum gravity using a special gauge that allows us to separate the physical ... (read more)

19A1 Damiano Anselmi
Fakeons and the classicization of quantum gravity: the FLRW metricUnder certain assumptions, it is possible to make sense of higher derivative theories by quantizing the unwanted degrees of freedom as fakeons, which are later ... (read more)
Dimensional regularization
15A1 Damiano Anselmi
Ward identities and gauge independence in general chiral gauge theories
Using the BatalinVilkovisky formalism, we study the Ward identities and the equations of gauge dependence in potentially anomalous general gauge theories, renormalizable or not. A crucial new term, absent in manifestly nonanomalous theories, is responsible for interesting effects. We prove that gauge invariance always implies gauge independence, which in turn ensures perturbative unitarity. Precisely, we consider potentially anomalous theories that are actually free of gauge anomalies thanks to the AdlerBardeen theorem. We show that when we make a canonical transformation on the treelevel action, it is always possible to rerenormalize the divergences and refinetune the finite local counterterms, so that the renormalized $\Gamma $ functional of the transformed theory is also free of gauge anomalies, and is related to the renormalized $\Gamma $ functional of the starting theory by a canonical transformation. An unexpected consequence of our results is that the beta functions of the couplings may depend on the gaugefixing parameters, although the physical quantities remain gauge independent. We discuss nontrivial checks of highorder calculations based on gauge independence and determine how powerful they are.
Phys. Rev. D 92 (2015) 025027  DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.92.025027
We define a modified dimensionalregularization technique that overcomes several difficulties of the ordinary technique, and is specially designed to work efficiently in chiral and parity violating quantum field theories, in arbitrary dimensions greater than 2. When the dimension of spacetime is continued to complex values, spinors, vectors and tensors keep the components they have in the physical dimension, therefore the $\gamma $ matrices are the standard ones. Propagators are regularized with the help of evanescent higherderivative kinetic terms, which are of the Majorana type in the case of chiral fermions. If the new terms are organized in a clever way, weighted power counting provides an efficient control on the renormalization of the theory, and allows us to show that the resulting chiral dimensional regularization is consistent to all orders. The new technique considerably simplifies the proofs of properties that hold to all orders, and makes them suitable to be generalized to wider classes of models. Typical examples are the renormalizability of chiral gauge theories and the AdlerBardeen theorem. The difficulty of explicit computations, on the other hand, may increase.
Phys. Rev. D 89 (2014) 125024  DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.89.125024
14A1 D. Anselmi
AdlerBardeen theorem and manifest anomaly cancellation to all orders in gauge theories
We reconsider the AdlerBardeen theorem for the cancellation of gauge anomalies to all orders, when they vanish at one loop. Using the BatalinVilkovisky formalism and combining the dimensionalregularization technique with the higherderivative gauge invariant regularization, we prove the theorem in the most general perturbatively unitary renormalizable gauge theories coupled to matter in four dimensions, and identify the subtraction scheme where anomaly cancellation to all orders is manifest, namely no subtractions of finite local counterterms are required from two loops onwards. Our approach is based on an orderbyorder analysis of renormalization, and, differently from most derivations existing in the literature, does not make use of arguments based on the properties of the renormalization group. As a consequence, the proof we give also applies to conformal field theories and finite theories.
Eur. Phys. J. C 74 (2014) 3083  DOI: 10.1140/epjc/s1005201430830
We develop a general fieldcovariant approach to quantum gauge theories. Extending the usual set of integrated fields and external sources to “proper” fields and sources, which include partners of the composite fields, we define the master functional $\Omega$, which collects oneparticle irreducible diagrams and upgrades the usual $\Gamma$functional in several respects. The functional $\Omega$ is determined from its classical limit applying the usual diagrammatic rules to the proper fields. Moreover, it behaves as a scalar under the most general perturbative field redefinitions, which can be expressed as linear transformations of the proper fields. We extend the BatalinVilkovisky formalism and the master equation. The master functional satisfies the extended master equation and behaves as a scalar under canonical transformations. The most general perturbative field redefinitions and changes of gaugefixing can be encoded in proper canonical transformations, which are linear and do not mix integrated fields and external sources. Therefore, they can be applied as true changes of variables in the functional integral, instead of mere replacements of integrands. This property overcomes a major difficulty of the functional $\Gamma$. Finally, the new approach allows us to prove the renormalizability of gauge theories in a general fieldcovariant setting. We generalize known cohomological theorems to the master functional and show that when there are no gauge anomalies all divergences can be subtracted by means of parameter redefinitions and proper canonical transformations.
Eur. Phys. J. C 73 (2013) 2363  DOI: 10.1140/epjc/s1005201323634
We study a new generating functional of oneparticle irreducible diagrams in quantum field theory, called master functional, which is invariant under the most general perturbative changes of field variables. The functional $\Gamma$ does not transform as a scalar under the transformation law inherited from its very definition, although it does transform as a scalar under an unusual transformation law. The master functional, on the other hand, is the Legendre transform of an improved functional W = ln Z with respect to the sources coupled to both elementary and composite fields. The inclusion of certain improvement terms in W and Z is necessary to make this transform well defined. The master functional behaves as a scalar under the transformation law inherited from its very definition. Moreover, it admits a proper formulation, obtained extending the set of integrated fields to the socalled proper fields, which allows us to work without passing through Z, W or $\Gamma$. In the proper formulation the classical action coincides with the classical limit of the master functional, and correlation functions and renormalization are calculated applying the usual diagrammatic rules to the proper fields. Finally, the most general change of field variables, including the map relating bare and renormalized fields, is a linear redefinition of the proper fields.
Eur. Phys. J. C 73 (2013) 2385  DOI: 10.1140/epjc/s100520132385y
In all nontrivial cases renormalization, as it is usually formulated, is not a change of integration variables in the functional integral, plus parameter redefinitions, but a set of replacements, of actions and/or field variables and parameters. Because of this, we cannot write simple identities relating bare and renormalized generating functionals, or generating functionals before and after nonlinear changes of field variables. In this paper we investigate this issue and work out a general fieldcovariant approach to quantum field theory, which allows us to treat all perturbative changes of field variables, including the relation between bare and renormalized fields, as true changes of variables in the functional integral, under which the functionals Z and W = ln Z behave as scalars. We investigate the relation between composite fields and changes of field variables, and show that, if J are the sources coupled to the elementary fields, all changes of field variables can be expressed as Jdependent redefinitions of the sources L coupled to the composite fields. We also work out the relation between the renormalization of variablechanges and the renormalization of composite fields. Using our transformation rules it is possible to derive the renormalization of a theory in a new variable frame from the renormalization in the old variable frame, without having to calculate it anew. We define several approaches, useful for different purposes, in particular a linear approach where all variable changes are described as linear source redefinitions. We include a number of explicit examples.
Eur. Phys. J. C 73 (2013) 2338  DOI: 10.1140/epjc/s1005201323385
05T1 Theorem
Maximum poles of Feynman diagrams
The maximum pole of a diagram with $V$ vertices and $L$ loops is at most $1/\varepsilon^{m(V,L)}$, where $m(V,L)=\min (V1,L).$ The result holds in dimensional regularization, where $\varepsilon = dD$, $d$ is the physical dimension and $D$ the continued one. Moreover, vertices are counted treating mass terms and the other nondominant quadratic terms as “twoleg vertices”.
04A2 D. Anselmi
Deformed dimensional regularization for odd (and even) dimensional theories
I formulate a deformation of the dimensionalregularization technique that is useful for theories where the common dimensional regularization does not apply. The Dirac algebra is not dimensionally continued, to avoid inconsistencies with the trace of an odd product of gamma matrices in odd dimensions. The regularization is completed with an evanescent higherderivative deformation, which proves to be efficient in practical computations. This technique is particularly convenient in three dimensions for ChernSimons gauge fields, twocomponent fermions and fourfermion models in the large N limit, eventually coupled with quantum gravity. Differently from even dimensions, in odd dimensions it is not always possible to have propagators with fully Lorentz invariant denominators. The main features of the deformed technique are illustrated in a set of sample calculations. The regularization is universal, local, manifestly gaugeinvariant and Lorentz invariant in the physical sector of spacetime. In flat space powerlike divergences are set to zero by default. Infinitely many evanescent operators are automatically dropped.
Int.J.Mod.Phys. A20 (2005) 13891418  DOI: 10.1142/S0217751X0501983X
arXiv:hepth/0404053
04A1 Damiano Anselmi
A note on the dimensional regularization of the Standard Model coupled with quantum gravity
In flat space, $\gamma_5$ and the epsilon tensor break the dimensionally continued Lorentz symmetry, but propagators have fully Lorentz invariant denominators. When the Standard Model is coupled with quantum gravity $\gamma_5$ breaks the continued local Lorentz symmetry. I show how to deform the Einstein lagrangian and gaugefix the residual local Lorentz symmetry so that the propagators of the graviton, the ghosts and the BRST auxiliary fields have fully Lorentz invariant denominators. This makes the calculation of Feynman diagrams more efficient.
Phys. Lett. B 596 (2004) 90  DOI: 10.1016/j.physletb.2004.06.089
arXiv:hepth/0404032
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Book
14B1 D. Anselmi
Renormalization
Course on renormalization, taught in Pisa in 2015. (More chapters will be added later.)
Last update: May 9th 2015, 230 pages
Avaibable on Amazon:
Contents:
Preface
1. Functional integral
2. Renormalization
3. Renormalization group
4. Gauge symmetry
5. Canonical formalism
6. Quantum electrodynamics
7. NonAbelian gauge field theories
Notation and useful formulas
References
Sections
 Cosmology (13)
 Phenomenology beyond SM (5)
 Quantum gravity (54)
 Standard model (10)
 AdlerBardeen theorem (5)
 Background field method (3)
 Unitarity of quantum field theory (22)
 Fakeons (41)
 Renormalization of general gauge theories (14)
 Fieldcovariant quantum field theory (4)
 Lorentz violating quantum field theory (11)
 Renormalization group (14)
 Infinite reduction of couplings (5)
 Regularization (5)
 Conformal field theory (20)
 Topological field theory (5)
 Instantons (4)
 Field redefinitions (4)
 Dimensional regularization (5)
 Philosophy of science (7)
 Biophysics (3)
 Videos (20)
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