## Phenomenology beyond SM

We study the free and dressed propagators of physical and purely virtual particles in a finite interval of time $τ$ and on a compact space manifold $Ω$, using coherent states. In the free-field limit, the propagators are described by the entire function $(e^{z}-1-z)/z^{2}$, whose shape on the real axis is similar to the one of a Breit-Wigner function, with an effective width around $1/τ$. The real part is positive, in agreement with unitarity, and remains so after including the radiative corrections, which shift the function into the physical half plane. We investigate the effects of the restriction to finite $τ$ on the problem of unstable particles vs resonances, and show that the muon observation emerges from the right physical process, differently from what happens at $τ=\infty $. We also study the case of purely virtual particles, and show that, if $τ$ is small enough, there exists a situation where the geometric series of the self-energies is always convergent. The plots of the dressed propagators show testable differences: while physical particles are characterized by the usual, single peak, purely virtual particles are characterized by twin peaks.

We provide a diagrammatic formulation of perturbative quantum field theory in a finite interval of time $τ$, on a compact space manifold $Ω$. We explain how to compute the evolution operator $U(t_{\text{f}},t_{\text{i}})$ between the initial time $t_{\text{i}}$ and the final time $t_{\text{f}}=t_{\text{i}}+τ$, study unitarity and renormalizability, and show how to include purely virtual particles, by rendering some physical particles (and all the ghosts, if present) purely virtual. The details about the restriction to finite $τ$ and compact $Ω$ are moved away from the internal sectors of the diagrams (apart from the discretization of the three-momenta), and coded into external sources. So doing, the diagrams are as similar as possible to the usual $S$ matrix diagrams, and most known theorems extend straightforwardly. Unitarity is studied by means of the spectral optical identities, and the diagrammatic version of the identity $U^†(t_{\text{f}},t_{\text{i}})U(t_{\text{f}},t_{\text{i}})=1$. The dimensional regularization is extended to finite $τ$ and compact $Ω$, and used to prove, under general assumptions, that renormalizability holds whenever it holds at $τ=\infty $, $Ω=\mathbb{R}^{3}$. Purely virtual particles are introduced by removing the on-shell contributions of some physical particles, and the ghosts, from the core diagrams, and trivializing their initial and final conditions. The resulting evolution operator $U_{\text{ph}}(t_{\text{f}},t_{\text{i}})$ is unitary, but does not satisfy the more general identity $U_{\text{ph}}(t_{3},t_{2})U_{\text{ph}}(t_{2},t_{1})$ $=U_{\text{ph}}(t_{3},t_{1})$. As a consequence, $U_{\text{ph}}(t_{\text{f}},t_{\text{i}})$ cannot be derived from a Hamiltonian in a standard way, in the presence of purely virtual particles.

The physics of fundamental interactions is going through a concerning, prolonged period of stagnation. The incredible success of the standard model of particle physics and the lack of new experimental data have frustrated our hopes in the future. On top of that, the scientific community shattered into a large number of isolated groups. Many mainstreams have consolidated, leaving not much room for the advancement of bright, original proposals. In frontier domains, like quantum gravity, most mainstreams have disavowed the inheritance of the glowing past and embarked on uncertain routes (string theory, loop quantum gravity and many others). It is time to make room for approaches that are really out of the box and can truly trigger a renaissance of particle physics. Yet, they can only be believable if they are solidly rooted in the successes of the past. This ERC project pursues a research line that does stem from the achievements of the past, but is radically new and has the potential to take us out of this dark period. It is based on the notion of purely virtual particle, which upgrades in a crucial way our understanding of fundamental interactions through quantum field theory. One of its key predictions in primordial cosmology could be confirmed experimentally within a decade. Nevertheless, the scientific community cannot afford another decade like the past ones, so it is imperative to act now. The new idea opens the door to unthinkable scenarios and has a huge amount of ramifications and applications to all areas of fundamental physics, with the potential to build bridges between quantum gravity, primordial cosmology and the phenomenology of particle physics beyond the standard model. More key predictions are expected to follow, together with crucial ideas for future colliders. Hopefully, they will trigger the breakthroughs that we need to make a U turn, activate a virtuous circle, reunite the scientific community and lead to the renaissance of particle physics.

The techical part of the application can be viewed here

We reconsider the Lee-Wick (LW) models and compare their properties to the properties of the models that contain purely virtual particles. We argue against the LW premise that unstable particles can be removed from the sets of incoming and outgoing states in scattering processes. The removal leads to a non-Hermitian classical limit, besides clashing with the observation of the muon. If, on the other hand, all the states are included, the LW models have a Hamiltonian unbounded from below or negative norms. Purely virtual particles, on the contrary, lead to a Hermitian classical limit and are absent from the sets of incoming and outgoing states without implications on the observation of long-lived unstable particles. We give a *vademecum* to summarize the properties of most options to treat abnormal particles. We study a method to remove the LW ghosts only partially, by saving the physical particles they contain. Specifically, we replace a LW ghost with a certain superposition of a purely virtual particle and an ordinary particle, and drop only the former from the sets of the external states. The trick can be used to make the Pauli-Villars fields consistent and observable, without sending their masses to infinity, or to build a finite QED, by tweaking the original Lee-Wick construction. However, it has issues with general covariance, so it cannot be applied as is to quantum gravity, where a manifestly covariant decomposition requires the introduction of a massive spin-2 multiplet.

Phys. Rev. D 105 (2022) 125017 | DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.105.125017

We prove spectral optical identities in quantum field theories of physical particles (defined by the Feynman $i\epsilon $ prescription) and purely virtual particles (defined by the fakeon prescription). The identities are derived by means of purely algebraic operations and hold for every (multi)threshold separately and for arbitrary frequencies. Their major significance is that they offer a deeper understanding on the problem of unitarity in quantum field theory. In particular, they apply to “skeleton” diagrams, before integrating on the space components of the loop momenta and the phase spaces. In turn, the skeleton diagrams obey a spectral optical theorem, which gives the usual optical theorem for amplitudes, once the integrals on the space components of the loop momenta and the phase spaces are restored. The fakeon

prescription/projection is implemented by dropping the thresholds that involve fakeon frequencies. We give examples at one loop (bubble, triangle, box, pentagon and hexagon), two loops (triangle with “diagonal”, box with diagonal) and arbitrarily many loops. We also derive formulas for the loop integrals with fakeons and relate them to the known formulas for the loop integrals with physical particles.

J. High Energy Phys. 11 (2021) 030 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/JHEP11(2021)030

Extensions to the Standard Model that use strictly off-shell degrees of freedom – the fakeons – allow for new measurable interactions at energy scales usually precluded by the constraints that target the on-shell propagation of new particles. Here we employ the interactions between a new fake scalar doublet and the muon to explain the recent Fermilab measurement of its anomalous magnetic moment. Remarkably, unlike in the case of usual particles, the experimental result can be matched for fakeon masses below the electroweak scale without contradicting the stringent precision data and collider bounds on new light degrees of freedom. Our analysis, therefore, demonstrates that the fakeon approach offers unexpected viable possibilities to model new physics naturally at low scales.

Phys. Rev. D 104 (2021) 035009 | DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.104.035009

We introduce a new way of modeling the physics beyond the Standard Model by considering fake, strictly off-shell degrees of freedom: the fakeons. To demonstrate the approach and exemplify its reach, we re-analyze the phenomenology of the Inert Doublet Model under the assumption that the second doublet is a fakeon. Remarkably, the fake doublet avoids the most stringent $Z$-pole constraints regardless of the chosen mass scale, thereby allowing for the presence of new effects well below the electroweak scale. Furthermore, the absence of on-shell propagation prevents fakeons from inducing missing energy signatures in collider experiments. The distinguishing features of the model appear at the loop level, where fakeons modify the Higgs boson $h\rightarrow\gamma\gamma$ decay width and the Higgs trilinear coupling. The running of Standard Model parameters proceeds as in the usual Inert Doublet Model case. Therefore, the fake doublet can also ensure the stability of the Standard Model vacuum. Our work shows that fakeons are a valid alternative to the usual tools of particle physics model building, with the potential to shape a new paradigm, where the significance of the existing experimental constraints towards new physics must necessarily be reconsidered.

J. High Energy Phys. 10 (2021) 132 | DOI: 10.1007/JHEP10(2021)132