19S1 D. Anselmi
Theories of gravitation




D. Anselmi
From Physics To Life

A journey to the infinitesimally small and back

In English and Italian

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Field equations

Consider an action $S$ depending on fields $\phi_{i}$, where the index $i$ labels both the field type, the component and the spacetime point. Add a term quadratically proportional to the field equations $S_{i}\equiv \delta S/\delta \phi _{i}$ and define the modified action
\phantom{(1)}\qquad\qquad\qquad S^{\prime }(\phi _{i})=S(\phi _{i})+S_{i}F_{ij}S_{j}, \qquad\qquad\qquad (1)
where $F_{ij}$ is symmetric and can contain derivatives acting to its left and to its right. Summation over repeated indices (including the integrationover spacetime points) is understood. Then there exists a field redefinition
\phantom{(1)}\qquad\qquad\qquad\phi _{i}^{\prime }=\phi _{i}+\Delta _{ij}S_{j}, \qquad\qquad\qquad (2)
with $\Delta _{ij}$ symmetric, such that, perturbatively in $F$ and to all orders in powers of $F$,
\phantom{(1)}\qquad\qquad\qquad S^{\prime }(\phi _{i})=S(\phi _{i}^{\prime }). \qquad\qquad\qquad (3)

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14B1 D. Anselmi

Course on renormalization, taught in 2015.

Last update: September 15th 2023, 242 pages

The final (2023) edition is vaibable on Amazon:


1. Functional integral
2. Renormalization
3. Renormalization group
4. Gauge symmetry
5. Canonical formalism
6. Quantum electrodynamics
7. Non-Abelian gauge field theories
Notation and useful formulas

The pdf file of the 2015 Edition is available here: PDF