Let $S(\Phi,U,K,K_{U})$ denote the solution of the master equation $(S,S)=0$, where $\{\Phi ^{A},U\}$ are the fields and $\{K_{A},K_{U}\}$ are the sources coupled to the $\Phi ^{A}$- and $U$-gauge transformations. If we replace $U$ with the solution $U^{*}(\Phi ,K,K_{U})$ of the $U$-field equations
\begin{equation}
\frac{\delta _{r}S}{\delta U}=0,
\end{equation}
then the action
\begin{equation}
S^{*}(\Phi ,K,K_{U})=S(\Phi... read more

Consider a functional integral
\[
\mathcal{I}=\int [\mathrm{d}\varphi ]\hspace{0.02in}\exp \left( -S(\varphi)+\int J\left( \varphi -bU\right) \right) ,
\]
where $U(\varphi ,bJ)$ is a local function of $\varphi$ and $J$, and $b$ is a constant. Then there exists a perturbatively local change of variables
\[
\varphi =\varphi (\varphi ^{\prime },b,bJ)=\varphi ^{\prime }+\mathcal{O}(b),
\]
expressed as a series expansion in... read more

Consider an action $S$ depending on fields $\phi_{i}$, where the index $i$ labels both the field type, the component and the spacetime point. Add a term quadratically proportional to the field equations $S_{i}\equiv \delta S/\delta \phi _{i}$ and define the modified action
\begin{equation}
\phantom{(1)}\qquad\qquad\qquad S^{\prime }(\phi _{i})=S(\phi _{i})+S_{i}F_{ij}S_{j}, \qquad\qquad\qquad (1)
\end{equation}
where $F_{ij}$... read more

The maximum pole of a diagram with $V$ vertices and $L$ loops is at most $1/\varepsilon^{m(V,L)}$, where $m(V,L)=\min (V-1,L).$ The result holds in dimensional regularization, where $\varepsilon = d-D$, $d$ is the physical dimension and $D$ the continued one. Moreover, vertices are counted treating mass terms and the other... read more