## Renormalization

The classical action of quantum gravity, determined by renormalization, contains infinitely many independent couplings and can be expressed in different perturbatively equivalent ways. We organize it in a convenient form, which is based on invariants constructed with the Weyl tensor. We show that the FLRW metrics are exact solutions of the field equations in arbitrary dimensions, and so are all locally conformally flat solutions of the Einstein equations. Moreover, expanding the metric tensor around locally conformally flat backgrounds the quadratic part of the action is free of higher derivatives. Black-hole solutions of Schwarzschild and Kerr type are modified in a non-trivial way. We work out the first corrections to their metrics and study their properties.

JHEP 1305 (2013) 028 | DOI: 10.1007/JHEP05(2013)028

We consider renormalizable Standard-Model extensions that violate Lorentz symmetry at high energies, but preserve CPT, and do not contain elementary scalar fields. A Nambu–Jona-Lasinio mechanism gives masses to fermions and gauge bosons, and generates composite Higgs fields at low energies. We study the effective potential at the leading order of the large-$N_{c}$ expansion, prove that there exists a broken phase and study the phase space. In general, the minimum may break invariance under boosts, rotations and CPT, but we give evidence that there exists a Lorentz invariant phase. We study the spectrum of composite bosons and the low-energy theory in the Lorentz phase. Our approach predicts relations among the parameters of the low-energy theory. We find that such relations are compatible with the experimental data, within theoretical errors. We also study the mixing among generations, the emergence of the CKM matrix and neutrino oscillations.

Phys. Rev. D83 (2011) 056005 | DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.83.056005

We study the one-loop renormalization of high-energy Lorentz violating four fermion models. We derive general formulas and then consider a number of specific models. We study the conditions for asymptotic freedom and give a practical method to determine the asymptotic-freedom domain. We also point out that in some models the RG flow contains “rational” Zimmermann trajectories that might hide new symmetries.

Phys. Rev. D81 (2010) 085043 | DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.81.085043

If Lorentz symmetry is violated at high energies, interactions that are usually non-renormalizable can become renormalizable by weighted power counting. Recently, a CPT invariant, Lorentz violating extension of the Standard Model containing two scalar-two fermion interactions (which can explain neutrino masses) and four fermion interactions (which can explain proton decay) was proposed. In this paper we consider a variant of this model, obtained suppressing the elementary scalar fields, and argue that it can reproduce the known low energy physics. In the Nambu$-$Jona-Lasinio spirit, we show, using a large $N_c$ expansion, that a dynamical symmetry breaking takes place. The effective potential has a Lorentz invariant minimum and the Lorentz violation does not reverberate down to low energies. The mechanism generates fermion masses, gauge-boson masses and scalar bound states, to be identified with composite Higgs bosons. Our approach is not plagued by the ambiguities of approaches based on non-renormalizable vertices. The low-energy effective action is uniquely determined and predicts relations among parameters of the Standard Model.

Eur.Phys.J. C65 (2010) 523-536 | DOI: 10.1140/epjc/s10052-009-1211-z

arXiv:0904.1849 [hep-ph]

We study the Standard-Model extensions that have the following features: they violate Lorentz invariance explicitly at high energies; they are unitary, local, polynomial and renormalizable by weighted power counting; they contain the vertex $(LH)^2$, which gives Majorana masses to the neutrinos after symmetry breaking, and possibly four fermion interactions; they do not contain right-handed neutrinos, nor other extra fields. We study the simplest CPT invariant Standard-Model extension of this type in detail and prove the cancellation of gauge anomalies. We investigate the low-energy recovery of Lorentz invariance and comment on other types of extensions.

Phys.Rev. D79 (2009) 025017 | DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.79.025017

arXiv:0808.3475 [hep-ph]

We classify the local, polynomial, unitary gauge theories that violate Lorentz symmetry explicitly at high energies and are renormalizable by weighted power counting. We study the structure of such theories and prove that renormalization does not generate higher time derivatives. We work out the conditions to renormalize vertices that are usually non-renormalizable, such as the two scalar-two fermion interactions and the four fermion interactions. A number of four dimensional examples are presented.

Annals Phys. 324 (2009) 1058-1077 | DOI: 10.1016/j.aop.2008.12.007

arXiv:0808.3474 [hep-th]